4-year-old Zoie Dougan and her mother were staying at a friend's house in Rogersville, Missouri.
According to reports, the 24-year-old man who lived in the house was outside target shooting with a .22 caliber rifle.
"The position he was shooting from - his vision was blocked to his right and a visiting 4-year-old girl walked into the path of fire and he shot her in the head," said the county sheriff.
Zoie died on the way to the hospital.
No charges have been filed relating to the death, although the man was arrested on an outstanding warrant and is currently in the county jail.